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水中污染物来源及处理方法(英文)

来源: 作者: 发布时间:2008-06-11  

Source
Organic matter makes up a significant part of the soil, therefore water-soluble organic compounds are present in all water supplies. Organic matter is reported on a water analysis as carbon, as it is in the TOC (total organic carbon) determination. The following is a list of organics, which regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986.
Endrin
异狄氏剂
Trichloroethane
三氯乙烷
Lindane
林丹
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (dioxin)
二恶因类的四氯戴奥辛
Methoxychlor
甲氧滴滴涕
Vydate
 p甲氨叉威、万强,草安威,草肟威p
Toxaphene
毒杀芬
Simazine
西玛津
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)
多环芳烃
TP
总磷
Polychlorinated bi phenyls (PCB)
多氯联苯
Aldicarb
 涕灭威
Atrazine
 莠去津
Chlordane
氯丹
Phthalates
苯二甲酸盐或酯类
Dalapon
茅草枯
Acrylamide
丙烯酰胺
Diquat
敌草快
Dibromochloropropane (DBCP)
二溴氯丙烷
Endothall
草藻灭
Dichloropropane
二氯内烷
Glyphosate
草甘膦
Pentachlorophenol
五氯苯酚
Carbofuran
 克百威
Picloram
毒莠定
Alachlor
甲草胺
Dinoseb
地乐酚
Epichlorohydrin
表氯醇
Ethylene dibromide (EDB)
二溴化乙烯
TolueneDibromomethane
Adipates
己二酸
Xylene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene

Organics come from three major sources: (1) the breakdown of naturally occurring organic materials, (2) domestic and commercial chemical wastes, and (3) chemical reactions that occur during water treatment processes. The first source is comprised of humic materials, microorganisms, and petroleum-based aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Organics derived from domestic and commercial chemical wastes include wastewater discharges, agricultural runoff, urban runoff, and leaching from contaminated soils. Organic contaminants formed during water treatment include disinfection by-products such as THM
(Trihalomethanes), or undesirable components of piping assembly such as joint adhesives.

Treatment
Activated carbon is generally used to remove organics, color, and taste-and-odor causing compounds. The contact time and service flow rate dictate the size of the carbon filter. When removing organics, restrict flow rates to 2 gpm per square foot of the filter bed. Reverse osmosis will remove 98 to 99% of the organics in the water. Ultrafiltration (TJF) and nanofiltration (NF) have both been proven to remove organics. Anion exchange resin also retains organics, but periodically needs cleaning.

 
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